On account of the rapidity with which mainstream protestant theology ahs departed from traditional Christianity, I’m always tempted to call the 20th c the Age of Apostacy, or perhaps even the post- Christian era.
……we observe that the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars that followed convulsed Europe for a about 25 years, at least from 1789-1815. And when they were over they left a legacy of ideology and reaction that continued to influence Eur thought and society for decades to come. Furthermore, form the end of the 18th to the end of the 19th and even into the first decades of the 20th c, one country after another in Eur, beginning with Great Britain, experienced what we call today the industrial revolution, that means the transformation of Eur’s economic basis from agriculture to manufacturing and its population from rural to urban. This transformation laid the foundations for our modern, industrial prosperous society and also for mass democracy. But that didn’t happen without the Eur people experiencing a tremendous trauma which manifested itself in fantastic institutional change.
Galileo of course was a great scientist in a variety of fields – mechanics, mathematics and optics as well as astronomy. But in this last field, many of his discoveries challenged not only Ptolomy but even Aristotle whose authority in matters scientific was practically absolute esp in the catholic uni world.
Spener was addressing the situation of his church in his own times and offered specific remedies for its problems. Which, if any, of his suggestions would still be a good idea today?
……Please submit a book report on the biography of Martin Luther (Here I Stand). As best you can, evaluate the author’s achievement. For example, you may want to comment on his thoroughness, his sources, his style, or his biases. You may also want to point out something you learned from the book or some point at which you think the author is wrong. Also indicate the author’s opinion of Luther – his character, his theology, his accomplishments, and his significance.
Please to explain Luther’s concept of “the priesthood of all believers” in his “Address to the Christian Nobility.” How did he justify the involvement of temporal rulers in the affairs of the church?
……explain how the concepts of faith and love summarize Luther’s theology in “The Freedom of a Christian.” In view of what Luther says about the sacraments in his “Babylonian Captivity,” how should Lutherans use the sacraments today? Distinguish between baptism and the eucharist.
Dr Cameron A. MacKenzie：In his treatise on “The Freedom of a Christian,” Luther develops two themes – justification and sanctification – but emphasizes justification more than the other. Is this emphasis still important or has society changed so much that we need to shift the balance between the two? If so, how?